Management accounting is the provision of financial and non-financial decision-making information to managers. In management accounting or managerial accounting, managers use the provisions of accounting information to better inform themselves before they decide matters within their organizations, which allows them to better manage and perform control functions.
The part of accounting that helps managers in making decisions providing accounting information is called management accounting.
Management accounting is a special branch of accounting. It is a modern and scientific innovation of accounting. Management accounting is accounting for effective management.
Meaning and Definition of Management Accounting
Management accounting is the process of identification, measurement, accumulation, analysis, preparation, interpretation and communication of information that assists executives in fulfilling organizational objectives.
It helps the management to perform all its functions including planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control. In other words, the field of accounting that provides economic and financial information for managers and other internal users is called management accounting.
Some beautiful definitions of management accounting are mentioned below:
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales defines, “Management Accouaung is that form of accounting which enables a business to be conducted more efficiently.”
According to R. N. Anthony, “Management Accounting is concerned with accounting information that is useful to management.”
Professor J Batty defines, “It is the term used to describe the accounting methods, systems, and techniques, which, coupled with special knowledge and ability, assist management in its task of maximizing profits or minimizing losses.”
The Institute of Cost and Management Accountants London has defined, “Management Accounting as, the application of professional knowledge and skill in the preparation of accounting information in such a way as to assist management in the formulation of policies and the planning control of the operation of the undertakings.”
Similarly, according to the American Accounting Association “It includes the methods and concepts necessary for effective planning for choosing among alternative business actions and for control through the evaluation and interpretation of performances
From the above definitions, we can say that the part of accounting that provides information to the managers for use in planning, controlling operations and decision making is called management accounting.
Characteristics/Nature of Management Accounting
The nature/characteristics of management accounting may be summarized as under:
- Management accounting is a technique of selective nature. It does not use the whole data provided by financial records. It selects and picks up only that information form different financial records (such as profit and loss account or balance sheet) which are relevant and useful to the management to arrive at important decisions on different aspects of the business.
- Management accounting is concerned with the future. It collects and analyses data to plan the future. The primary function of management is to decide bout the future course of action. Management accounting with the help of different techniques formats the future course of action.
- Management Accounting makes available useful information which helps the management in planning and decision-making. It can only provide information but cannot proscribe. It is up to management to what extent it. It can make use of the information depending upon its efficiency and wisdom.
- Management accounting studies the relation between causes and effects. Financial accounting does and analyses the causes responsible for profits or losses. Management accounting attempts to study the cause-and-effect relationship by analyzing the different variables affecting the profits and profitability of the business.
- Management accounting is no bound by the rules of financial accounting. Financial accounting procedures are designed based on GAAPs.
Functions of Management Accounting
The basic function of management accounting is to assist the management in performing its functions effectively. The functions of the management are planning, organizing, directing and controlling.
Management accounting is a part of accounting. It has developed out of the need for making more use of accounting for taking managerial decisions.
Management accounting helps in the performance of each of these functions in the following ways:
Management accounting serves as a vital source of data for management planning. The accounts and documents are a repository of a vast quantity of data about the past progress of the enterprise, which is a must for making forecasts for the future.
Management accounting modifies the available accounting data rearranging in such a way that it becomes useful for management.
The modification of data in similar groups makes the data more useful and understandable. The accounting data required for management decisions is properly compiled and classifies.
For example, purchase figures for different months may be classified to know total purchases made during each period product-wise, supplier-wise and territory-wise.
Management accounting is an important medium of communication. Different levels of management (top, middle and lower) need different types of information.
The top management needs concise information at relatively long intervals, middle management needs information regularly and lower management is interested in detailed information at short-intervals.
Management accounting establishes communication within the organization and with the outside world.
Analyses and interprets data
The accounting data is analyzed meaningfully for effective planning and decision-making. For this purpose the data is presented in a comparative form, Ratios are calculated and likely trends are projected.
Serves as a means of communicating
Management accounting provides a means of communicating management plans upward, downward and outward through the organization.
Initially, it means identifying the feasibility and consistency of the various segments of the plan. The later stages it keeps all parties informed about the plans they have been agreed upon and their roles in these plans.
Management accounting helps in translating given objectives and strategy into specified goals for attainment t by a specified time and secures the effective accomplishment of these goals efficiently. All this is made possible through budgetary control and standard costing which is an integral part of management accounting.
Uses also qualitative information
Management accounting does not restrict itself to financial data for helping the management in decision making but also uses such information that may be capable of being measured in monetary terms. Such information may be collected from special surveys, statistical compilations, engineering records, etc.
To assist in Planning
Management Accounting assists the management in planning as well as to formulate policies by making forecasts about the production, selling the inflow and outflow of cash, etc.
Not only that, but it may also forecast how much may be needed from alternative courses of action or the expected rate of return therefrom and at the same time decides upon the programmed of activities to be undertaken.
To assist in Organizing
By preparing budgets and ascertaining specific cost centers, it delivers the resources to each center and delegates the respective responsibilities to ensure their proper utilization.
As a result, an interrelationship grows among the different parts of the enterprise.
Management accounting furnishes accounting data and statistical information required for the decision-making process which vitally affects the survival and the success of the business.
Management accounting supplies analytical information regarding various alternatives and the choice of management is made easy.
To assist in motivation
By setting goals, planning the best and economical courses of action and also by measuring the performances of the employees, it tries to increase their efficiency and ultimately, motivate the organization as a whole.
It helps the management in co-ordination the whole activities of the enterprise, firstly by preparing the functional budgets, then co-coordinating the whole activities of the enterprise, firstly, by preparing the functional budgets, then co-coordinating the whole activities by integrating all functional budgets into one which goes by the name of ‘Master Budget’.
In this way, it helps the management by con-coordinating the different parts of the enterprise. Besides, overall co-ordination is not at all possible without budgetary control’
The actual work done can be compared with ‘Standards’ to enable the management to control the performances effectively.
Purpose and Objectives of Management Accounting
The primary objective of Management Accounting is to enable the management to maximize profits or minimize losses.
The fundamental objective of management accounting provides information to the managers for use in planning, controlling operations and decision making.
Main purpose and objectives of management accounting may be summarized as under:
Uses of Information
The primary functions of management are the uses of information. It presents accounting information in a form that enables the management, investors, and creditors to analyze the financial statements.
Planning and Policy Formulation
Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. It helps the management of ineffective planning. It provides costing and statistical data to be utilized in setting goals and formulating future policies.
Decision making is defined as the selection of a course of action from among alternatives. It helps the management in decision-making. It uses accounting data in solving various management problems.
Management accounting techniques like cost-volume-profit analysis, standard costing, budgetary control, capital budgeting, funds flow analysis, etc. Assist the management in arriving at the correct decision.
Motivation means individuals need, desires and concepts that cause him or her to act in a particular manner. Delegation serves as a motivation device because it increases the job satisfaction of employees and encourages them to look forward.
By setting goals, planning the best and economical courses of action and also by measuring the performances of the employees, it tries to increase their efficiency and ultimately, motivate the organization as a whole.
Management accounting helps management in controlling the performance of the organization. Actual performance is compared with operating plans, standards and budgets and deviations are reported to the management so that corrective measures may be taken.
It helps the management in controlling the performance of the organization.
Actual performance is compared with operating plans, standards and budgets and deviations are reported to the management so that corrective measures may be taken.
One of the primary objectives of management accounting is to keep the management fully informed about the latest positions of the concern. The facilitates management to take proper and timely decisions.
The object of management accounting is to provide data. It presents the different alternative plans before the management in a comparative manner. The performance of various departments is also regularly communicated to the top management.
Help in Organizing
Organizing is the process of allocating and arranging human and nonhuman resources so that plans can be carried out successfully.
Tools or Techniques of Management Accounting
Management Accountant applies many of the financial and cost accounting systems, as techniques, to assist the management. Management accounting is concerned with accounting information that is useful to management.
Management accounting, like accounting, as an accounting service to management through its .various functions, has to employ several tools, techniques, and methods. Now one technique can satisfy managerial needs.
These are placed here in brief to have some idea about those
A business requires finance. Financial planning involves determining both long-term and short-term financing objectives of the firm. Every firm has to decide on the sources of raising funds.
The funds can be raised either through the issue of share capital or through raising loans. Again a decision is to be taken about the type of capital, equity share capital or preference share capital.
When it decides to raise fund through loans, management is to decide the extent of borrowing, long-term or short term. All these decisions are important for financing planning.
There are a number of the device which help in controlling. The most widely used device for management control is “Budget”.
Budgetary control is a system that resorts to budget as a means of planning and controlling and coordinating different types of activities, like the production and distribution of goods and services as designed.
Marginal costing is helpful for the measurement of profitability of different lines of production. This technique helps in identifying the nature of costs like marginal costs (variable) and fixed costs.
This is a method of costing which is concerned with changes in costs resulting from changes in the volume of production.
Historical Cost Accounting
The statement of actual costs after they have been incurred is called Historical cost accounting.
Historical cost accounting is a system of accounting that records all transactions at costs incurred as soon as they take place or on a date immediately after their occurrence.
One of the most important functions of top management is to make decisions. Decision making involves a choice from several alternatives.
The decision is taken after studying the alternative data in terms of costs, prices, and profits furnished by management accounting and exercising the best choice after considering other non-financial factors. The objective is to maximize profit through the use of the best alternative method.
The management accounting uses Marginal Costing techniques, Capital Expenditure Budget, and separation of production costs to achieve this end.
Standard costing is an important tool of cost control which is one of the main objectives of management accounting.
Standard costing techniques compare the standard costs of materials, labor, and expenses incidental to production which is predetermined, with the actual costs that have occurred in the course of carrying out production.
It is the most effective technique available for controlling performances and costs.
Analysis of Financial Statement
The technique of financial analysis includes comparative financial statements, ratios, fund flow statements, Cash flow statement and comparative financial statement analysis tools to management for decision making.
The financial statements reveal the past performances of business in respect of dividend-paying capacity, nature of debts services, profit-earning capacity and solvency position.
Based on these past events, the future course of action is projected.
This is an important tool for management accounting.
Revaluation or Replacement accounting revere to the maintenance of capital in real terms. This term is used to denote the methods employed for overcoming the problems connect with fixed asset replacement in a period of rising prices.
It is a fact that a problem arises in connection with the replacement of fixed assets in terms of rising prices. It ensures the maintenance of the capital of the firm.
It is not a separate accounting system. It consists of techniques of standard costing, budgetary control, control reports and statement, internal check, internal audit, and reports.
It is in this field that the management has scope to display ingenuity in the’ analysis, interpretation and presentation of information at all levels of management.
Management Information System
It has already been stated that the management accounting of an enterprise is to provide management and other operations as a basis of protective and constructive to management.
The management accountant provides all these data and information relevant to the enterprise for the purpose.
With the development of electronic devices for recording and classifying data, reporting to management has considerably improved. Feed-back of information can be used as control techniques.
There is a large number of statistical and graphical techniques that are used in management accounting. Some common examples are the master chart, chart of sales and earnings, investment chart, etc.
Ratio accounting signifies the technique and methodology of analysis and interpretation of financial statements using accounting ratios derived from such statements.
Ratio accounting included trend analysis, comparative financial statements, ratio analysis, fund flow statements, etc.
Limitations of Management Accounting
Though management accounting in helpful too to the management as it provides information for planning, controlling and decision making.
Still, its effectiveness is limited by several reasons. Management Accounting is a recent discipline and therefore, it is in the process of development.
Hence, it suffers from all the limitations of a new discipline. Some of the limitations of management accounting follow:
Management Accounting is only a tool
Management accounting should never be considered as an alternative or substitute for management. The tools and techniques of management accounting provide only information and not decisions.
Decisions are to be taken by management and implementation of decisions is also done by management.
Management accounting is still in its initial stage. Management accounting is only in a developmental stage has not reached the final stage.
The techniques and tools used by this system give varying and deferring results.
Limitations of Basic Records
Management accounting is mainly concerned with the rearrangement or modification of data. It derives its information from financing accounting, cost accounting and other records.
The correctness of management accounting depends upon the correctness of these basic records: that is, their limitations are also the; limitations of a management accountant.
Lack of knowledge
The use of management accounting requires knowledge of several related subjects.
Deficiency in knowledge in related subjects like accounting principles statistics, economics, principles of management, etc. will limit the use of management accounting.
The conclusions and decisions drawn by the management accountant are not executed automatically. Thus, there is a need for continuous and coordinated efforts of each management level to execute these decisions.
He has to convince people at all levels. In other words, he must be an efficient salesman in selling his ideas.
Decision making based on management accounting that provides scientific analysis of various situations will be a time-consuming one.
As such management may avoid systematic procedures for taking a decision and arrive at decision using intuitive, and intuitive limits the usefulness of management accounting.
It is very costly. The installation of a management accounting system needs a very elaborate organization and numerous rules and regulations. This results in heavy investment which only bill concerns can afford.
The interpretation of financial information depends on the capacity of an interpreter as one has to make a personal judgment, personal prejudices and bias affect the objectivity of decisions.
The installation of management accounting involves a basic change in an organizational setup.
New rules and regulations are also required to be framed which affects many personal and hence there is a possibility of resistance from some quarters or the other.
The installation of a management accounting system requires heavy costs on account of an elaborate organization and numerous rules and regulations. It can, therefore, be adopted only by big concerns.
Provides Only Data
The main function of management accounting is to provide data and not decisions. It can only inform, not prescribe.
Management accounting has a very wide scope incorporating many disciplines. Management requires information from both accounting as w£fl as nonaccounting sources.
This creates many problems and brings a degree of inexactness and subjectivity in the conclusion obtained through it.
Not an alternation to administration
Management accounting is a tool of management, not an alternative to management. It cannot replace the management or administration.
Opposition to Change
Management accounting demands a break away from traditional accounting practices.
It calls for a rearrangement of the personal and their activities, which is generally not like by the people involved.
Importance or Roles of Management Accounting in the Decision-Making Process in a Business Organization.
The objective of decision making is to maximize profit through the use of the best alternative method. Management accounting helps management in deciding financial affairs. It uses accounting data in solving various management problems.
Every organization has to decide at the right time. Management accounting played a vital role in the decision-making process in a business organization.
The importance/role of management accounting can be stated as follows:
Management accounting plays a vital role in taking an efficient plan providing necessary information.
Through the capital budget, sales budget, Cost-volume-profit analysis, management accountants provide information for making plans.
Increasing Efficiency to Business Operations
Management accounting also plays an important role in increasing efficiency in business operations through budgeting, ratio analysis, variance analysis, standard costing, etc.
Management accounting takes pan inefficient control through JIT philosophy and total quality control system.
Increase Labor Efficiency
Management accounting helps to increase labor efficiency through standard labor costing, linking bonus with productivity and budgeting.
Achieve Management Efficiency
Management accounting contributes a lot to increase the management efficiency of the organization providing managers with the correct information.
Help Management Function
We know that the main functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling management accounting helps management personnel to perform the functions properly providing necessary accounting information.
For performing the functions efficiently and effectively, managers need to communicate with the various parties and parts of the organization.
Management accounting helps in this respect preparing various reports.
Last, of all, we can say that the activities of management accounting are occurred only to perform a vital role in the decision-making process in an organization.
Scope of Management Accounting
The main aim is to help management in its functions of planning, directing and controlling.
The scope of management accounting is so wide broad-based that it includes within its fold an analysis of all the aspects of modern accounting which emphasis the common denominator of the functions of both management and accounting the making of an effective decision based on appropriate information.
The following are some of the areas of specialization included within the ambit of management accounting:
Financial accounting is the general accounting which accounting relates to the recording of business transactions in the books of prime entry, posting them into respective ledger accounts, balancing them preparing a trial balance.
Accounting for revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities, and net worth, together with the production of summary financial reports.
Hence management accounting can not obtain full control and coordination of operations without a well designed financial accounting system.
Costing is a branch of accounting.
Accounting for current, standard and prospective costs; analysis and communication of cost data at all levels of management with the organization. It is the process and technique of ascertaining cost. Planning, decision-making, and control are the basic managerial functions.
The cost accounting system provides the necessary tools such as standard costing, budgetary control, inventory control, marginal costing, etc. for carrying out such functions efficiently.
Budgeting means expressing the plans, policies, and goals of the enterprise for a definite period in the future.
Assembly and consolidation of budget; assistance to management personnel in translating operating plans into financial budgets; reporting and analysis of budget variances.
Forecasting, on the other hand, is a prediction of what happened as a result of a given set of circumstances. Targets are set for different departments and responsibility is fixed for achieving these targets.
Recording accounting data, performing repetitive operations with these data and preparing reports to form recoded data.
Review and appraisal of accounting procedures and records to ascertain their reliability, conformity to prescribed practices and adequacy to protect against loss of assets by fraud, waste and other causes.
This necessitates the computation of income by the Income Tax Act, preparing return statements and making payment of taxes when due Income statements are prepared and tax liabilities are calculated.
The management is informed about the tax burden from the central Government, State Government, and Local Authorities. This includes the computation of taxable income as per tax law, filing of returns, etc.
Interpretation of accounting reports, analysis in financial terms of proposed projects, plans and procedures; assistance to the management in interpretation and evaluation of financial data of all types.
It includes control over inventory from the time it is acquired until its final disposal.
This is concerned with ensuring that capital is maintained intact in real terms and profit is calculated with this fact in mind.
Graphs, charts, pictorial presentations, index numbers, and other statistical methods make the information more impressive and intelligible.
Other tools such as time series, regression analysis, sampling technique, etc. are highly useful for planning and forecasting.
This includes computation of income following the tax laws, filing of returns and making tax payments.
Method and Procedures
This includes maintenance of proper data processing and other office management services, reporting on the best use of mechanical and electronic devices.
It provides statistical data to the various departments and undertakes special cost studies, cost estimations, reports on cost-volume-profit relationships, under the changing conditions of the organization.
This includes the preparation of monthly, quarterly, half-yearly income statements and the related reports, cash flow and funds flow statements, scrap reports, etc.
This includes maintenance of proper data processing and other data processing and other office management services, reporting on the best use of mechanical and electronic devices.
This includes maintenance of proper data processing and other office management services, reporting on the best use of mechanical and electronic devices.
Ethical Responsibilities of Management Accountants
Management accountants should behave ethically. They must follow the highest standards of ethical responsibility and maintain a good professional image.
The Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) has developed the following four standards of ethical conduct for management accountants:
- Maintain an appropriate level of professional competence through the ongoing development of their knowledge and skills.
- Perform their professional duties following relevant laws, regulations, and technical standards.
- Prepare complete and clear reports and recommendations after appropriate analyses of relevant and reliable information.
- Refrain from disclosing confidential information acquired in the course of their work except when authorized, unless legally obligated to do so.
- Inform subordinates as appropriate regarding the confidentiality of information acquired in the course of their work and monitor their activities to assure the maintenance of that confidentiality.
- Refrain from using or appearing to use confidential information acquired in the course of their work for unethical or illegal advantage either personally or through third parties.
- Avoid actual or apparent conflicts of interest and advise all appropriate parties of a potential conflict.
- Refrain from engaging in any activity that would prejudice their ability to carry out their duties ethically.
- Refuse any gift, favor, or hospitality that would influence or would appear to influence their actions.
- Refrain from either actively or passively subverting the attainment of the organization s legitimate and ethical objectives.
- Recognize and communicate professional limitations or other constraints that would preclude responsible judgment or successful performance of an activity.
- Communicate unfavorable as well as favorable information and professional judgments or opinions.
- Refrain from engaging in or supporting any activity that would discredit the profession.
- Communicate information fairly and objectively.
- Disclose fully all relevant information that could reasonably be expected to influence an intended user’s understanding of the reports, comments, and recommendations presented.
Services/Tasks of Management Accountants
Listed below are the primary tasks/services performed by management accountants. The degree of complexity relative to these activities are dependent on the experience level and abilities of any one individual.
- Managerial consultancy
- Financial report analysis
- Cost analysis
- Rate and volume analysis
- Business metrics development
- Price modeling
- Product profitability
- Geographic vs. industry or client segment reporting
- Sales management scorecards
- Cost-benefit analysis
- Cost-volume-profit analysis
- Life cycle cost analysis
- Client profitability analysis
- IT cost transparency
- Capital budgeting
- Buy vs. lease analysis
- Strategic planning
- Strategic management advice
- Internal financial report presentation and communication
- Sales forecasting
- Financial forecasting
- Annual budgeting
- Cost allocation
- Managerial decision making
Distinctions between Management Accounting and Financial Accounting
Financial accounting and management accounting are closely inter-related since management accounting draws out a major part of the information form financial accounting and modifies the same for managerial use.
Financial accounting ensures that the assets and liabilities of a business are properly accounted for and provides shareholder investors, tax authority, creditors, etc.
On the other hand, management accounting provides information especially for the use of managers who are responsible to take proper decisions within an organization.
Financial accounting is concerned with the recording of day-to-day transactions of the business.
Though both financial and management accounting relies on the same financial data, there are some differences between financial and management accounting.
Distinctions between Management Accounting and Financial Accounting are the following:
|Point of difference||Management Accounting||Financial Accounting|
Management accounting is especially for internal users.
Management accounting reports are exclusively used by internal users viz. managers and employees.
Financial accounting is both for internal and external users.
Financial accounting reports arc primarily used by external users, such as shareholders, bank and creditors.
|Objective||The objective of management accounting is to assist internal management.||The objective of financial accounting is to assist both internal and external decision-makers.|
|Uses of GAAP||GAAP is not mandatory to follow in management accounting.||GAAP is mandatory to follow in financial accounting.|
|Events||It emphasizes decisions on future events.||It emphasizes decisions on past events.|
|Freedom of choices||No constraints are other than costs about the benefits of improved management decisions.||Constrained by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)|
|Type of Reports||Detailed reports: concern about details of parts of the entity, products, departments, territories, etc.||Summary reports concern primarily with the entity as a whole.|
|Behavioral implications||Concern about how measurements and reports will influence a manager’s daily behavior.||Concern about how to measure and communicate economic phenomena.|
|Delineation of Activities||The field is less sharply defined. Heavier use of economic, decision science, and behavioral sciences.||The field is more sharply defined. Lighter use of related disciplines.|
|Timespan||Flexible, varying from hours to years||Less flexible; usually 1 month to 1 year.|
|Methodology||In, management accounting, cost, and revenue are mostly reported by responsibility centers or profit centers.||Financial accounting records are maintaining in the form of revenue, income and expenditure, and property accounts.|
|Annual Reporting||Annual reporting of management accounting is not mandatory.||Annual reporting of financial accounting is mandatory.|
|Characteristics||It holds qualitative characteristics.||It holds quantitative characteristics.|
|Fundamental quality||Emphasizes relevance.||Emphasizes objectivity and verifiability.|
|Enhancing Quality||Emphasizes timeliness||Emphasizes precision|
|Rules||It has the managers’ own rules.||It has no accountants’ own rules.|
|External vs. Internal||Management accounting system produces information that is used within an organization, by managers and employees.||A financial accounting system produces information that is used by parties external to the organization, such as shareholders, bank and creditors.|
|Segment reporting||May pertain to smaller business units or individual departments, in addition to the entire organization.||Pertains to the entire organization or materially significant business units.|
|Focus||Management accounting focuses on the future & present.||Financial accounting focuses on history.|
|Format||No specific format is designed for management accounting systems. (Formal and informal recordkeeping)||Financial accounts are supposed to be in accordance with a specific format so that financial accounts of different organizations can be easily compared. (Formal recordkeeping)|
|Planning and Control||Management accounting helps management to record, plan and control activities to aid the decisionmaking process.||Financial accounting helps in making investment decisions, and in credit rating.|
Quantitative and qualitative.
Monetary and non-monetary.
|Quantitative and monetary.|
|Reporting frequency and duration.||As needed – daily, weekly, monthly.||Well-defined – annually, semi-annually, quarterly. (Verifiable)|
|Optional||Preparing financial accounting reports is mandatory especially for limited companies.||There are no legal requirements to prepare reports on management accounting.|
|Legal / Rules||Drafted according to management suitability.||Drafted according to GAAP – Generally Accepted Accounting Procedure.|
|Accounting Process||Cost accounts are not Reserved under Management Accounting. The data from financial|
statement and cost ledgers are analyzed
|Follows a full process of recording, classifying, and summarizing for the purpose of analysis and interpretation of the financial information.|
Difference between Cost Accounting and Management Accounting
Management accounting and Cost accounting are two important branches of accounting. Both of these branches of accounting help the management in accomplishing their assigned task. Management accounting and cost accounting involves the presentation of accounting information in a manner that facilitates a prudent planning, correct decision-making and effective controlling of day-to-day operations.
It goes without saying that both the systems overlap each other in some areas of functioning. Most of the cost accounting concepts are freely used in management accounting for assisting the management.
Naturally, it is difficult to draw a sharp distinction between the two. Despite this situation some distinctions which can be identified, are placed in the following manner:
|Point of difference||Management Accounting||Cost Accounting|
|Objective||The main object of management accounting is to provide information to the managers for use in planning, controlling operations and decision making.||The main object of cost accounting to determine and control the cost of production.|
|Accounting system||In management Accounting, no such system is needed for the application.||In Cost Accounting, Double Entry System be applied in case of need.|
|Guiding principles||Management Accounting has got no Generally Accepted principles. It follows such principles as would be necessary according to the demand for the situation.||Cost Accounting usually follows some specific principles. These are cost concepts and principles for the determination of costs.|
|Nature||Management accounting is related to future programs, planning and decision making.||It is based on past and present financial figures.|
|Rules||It is not necessary to follow Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).||Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) are strictly followed in preparing cost statement.|
|Unit of measurement||Non-physical units like labor Hours. Machine Hours etc are also important bases for measurement in both the systems.||Both of these systems of accounting use physical and financial units of measurement.|
|Functions||The main function of management accounting is to provide data and not decisions. It can only inform, not prescribe.||The main function of cost accounting is to record classify and concentrate costs.|
|Related||Only top-level management needs management accounting information to make a decision.||Top and mid-level managers are related to cost accounting activity.|
|Data used||Management accounting uses both quantitative and qualitative information.||Only quantitative aspect is recoded in cost accounting|
|Duration of the accounting period||This is because management accounting is to serf the purpose of decision making for a future course of action.||Cost Accounting information are concerned with the current year ignoring future years while management accounting is mainly future-oriented.|
|Time of prepare||In management accounting system reports can be prepared when it is needed.||Generally costs statements are prepared at the end of the financial period.|
|Focal point||In the case of Management Accounting individual segment of business comes under the purview. Sometimes the entire business is considered to the principal object of study.||In cost accounting, the cost of production is arrived at based on cost-centers, production departments, and work processes. It does not consider the same from the standpoint of business as a whole.|
|Users||The users of management accounting are the manger and other internal users.||The users of cost accounting information may be both internal and external.|
|Scope||In both trading and manufacturing concerns.||In the manufacturing concern.|
|Rules||It follows the managers’ own rules.||It doesn’t follow the accountants’ own rules.|
According to the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA): “Management accounting is a profession that involves partnering in management decision making, devising planning and performance management systems, and providing expertise in financial reporting and control to assist management in the formulation and implementation of an organization’s strategy”.
The area and scope of management accounting are different in comparing financial accounting.
Managerial accounting is concerned with providing information to managers—that is, the people inside an organization who direct and control its operations.
In contrast, financial accounting is concerned with providing information to stockholders, creditors, and others who are outside the organization.
This contrast in orientation results in several major differences between financial and managerial accounting, even though they often rely on the same underlying financial data, financial and managerial accounting differ not only in their user orientation but also in their emphasis on the past and the future, in the type of data provided to users, and in several other ways.
Information provided by management accounting is not prepared by following GAAP
Yes, we are agreed with the statement. Because it is not mandatory to follow GAAP in management accounting. Managers can set their own rules concerning the content and form of internal reports.
The managers are not bounded by GAAP. So the information about management accounting depends on the managers’ own rules and regulations.
Hence, we can say that the information provided by management accounting is not prepared by following GAAP.