Monitoring of Training Programs
Training monitoring is a process through which the institution can assess whether the training is implemented as per the action plan or whether there is any significant deviation as envisaged in the plan.
The overall purpose of monitoring of any training design is to generate regular feedback from the field for incorporation into the training programs for continuous updating and enrichment of training designs.
The purpose of monitoring at the trainee’s worksite is to determine if skills acquired in training have transferred satisfactorily to the worksite and if it has changed the quality at the service delivery system.
In general, the objectives of training monitoring can be enumerated as follows:
- To review the training designs.
- To review the capacity of training institutes/agencies.
- To review the training environment of the institutional settings.
- To review the training resources available
To accomplish the above objectives, monitoring team members may follow some methodological steps, a few of which are
- Situation observations of management and training areas
- Physical verification of institutional facilities
- Checking of training records/materials
- Formal and informal discussions
- Review training targets and achievements
- Identify implementation problems
- Review pre and posttest results
- Examine checklists used tom to assess the trainee’s performance.
Evaluation of Training Programs
According to the basic assumptions of training and evaluation, the success of any training is heavily dependent on its evaluation feedback.
As Harison (1988) mentioned, without evaluation, there cannot be a certainty that a learning event has achieved its objectives, or that even if it has done so, those objectives were themselves worthwhile, or that whatever the success and relevance of learning event, it was carried out most cost-effectively.
Therefore, evaluation is an essential part of the training process, which provides continuous supports to make it effective. In general, evaluation has two purposes.
First, it can be used to assessing training effectiveness or determining the value of training. Second, it can itself be used as a training aid.
To make training programs effective, an evaluation must be undertaken throughout all stages of the training cycle.
Brambly (1986) argued that if training is to be a systematic procedure, then evaluation is an integral part of the training cycle.
Evaluation of each stage of the training cycle is not only a matter of routine work; it has the necessity and importance to fulfill the aims and objectives of a training program.
Depending on the length, objectives, and contents of the training program, the evaluation methods may vary. Some of the common methods of evaluation are:
- Evaluation by using questionnaires
- Marks and grades in examination
- Interview or discussions with the incumbent
- Pre or posttest
- Behavior observation.
Experience suggests that there are four steps or levels of training evaluation:
- Reaction: How well the participants accepted the training program;
- Learning: What principles, facts, and techniques were learned in training?
- Behavior: What changes in job behavior resulted from the training program?
- Results: What were the tangible results of the programs in terms of reduced costs, improved quality, and enhanced quantity?
The first two levels are internally oriented and are known as the formative dimension of evaluation. They are conducted during and/ or at the end of the training program.
The critical question in this evaluation is: “Did the training operate as originally planned, or do they need improvement?”
The last two are externally oriented and are known as a summative dimension of evaluation.
They are conducted after the trainees are returned to their job, where we are curious to know,” Did the training achieve the outcomes as intended?”