Processus de négociation [5 étapes/étapes de négociation]

5 étapes du processus de négociation

Le processus de négociation imprègne les interactions de presque tout le monde dans les groupes et les organisations. Dans les organisations peu structurées d'aujourd'hui, dans lesquelles les membres travaillent avec des collègues sur lesquels ils n'ont aucune autorité directe et avec lesquels ils ne partagent même pas de patron commun, les compétences en négociation deviennent essentielles.

The negotiation process consists of certain phases. The following figure depicts a model describing the basic features of the negotiation process. They are—the preparation phase (information gathering); developing and selecting a strategy (setting the ground rules), opening moves (exploring and proposing the matter), bargaining and problem-solving, and closure and implementation of the negotiation process.

The essence of the five steps of the negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement, a proper bargain suitable for all parties.

Dans cet article, nous examinerons le processus de négociation qui se compose de cinq étapes. Ces étapes sont décrites ci-dessous ;

Preparation and Planning

Avant le début des négociations, il faut être conscient du conflit, de l'histoire qui a conduit à la négociation du people involved and their perception of the conflict, expectations from the negotiations, etc.

Avant de commencer la négociation, vous devez faire vos devoirs.

De plus, avant toute négociation, il faut décider quand et où aura lieu une réunion pour discuter du problème et qui y participera.

Fixer une échelle de temps limitée peut également être utile pour éviter que les désaccords ne perdurent. Cette étape consiste à s'assurer que tous les faits pertinents de la situation sont connus afin de clarifier sa propre position.

Il doit également préparer une évaluation des objectifs de négociation des autres parties. Que sont-ils susceptibles de demander ?

Skilled negotiators invest more time and effort in planning the process they intend to use. It serves as a guideline for them. In this phase, a detailed analysis is required on certain issues.

It can be the nature of conflict, history of conflict, parties involved in it, own assessment as well as others’ goals, and so on.

The important questions to resolve are:

  1. How entrenched are they likely to be in their position?
  2. What intangible or hidden interests are important to them?
  3. What are they likely to ask for?

Developing One’s BATNA

Negotiators need to know their Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA). It is made up of a variety of elements.

These can include deadlines; alternatives such as other suppliers or customers; your own resources; their resources; information you gain before and during the negotiation; the level of experience you or other parties have; your as well as the other party’s interests; and knowledge about the matters under consideration.

Each party has a BATNA. It guides in responding to the situation.

Determining one’s Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA) is important because it tells us whether a particular negotiation is worth undertaking or continuing in the light of the alternative way that might serve your interests.

Fisher and Ury outline a simple process for determining one’s BATNA.

  1. Develop a list of actions that one might conceivably take if no agreement is reached.
  2. Improve some of the more promising ideas and convert them into practical options.
  3. Select tentatively the one option that seems the best.

The goal of negotiating is to arrive at a good agreement. It is a measure of the balance of power among the negotiating parties based on the resources they control or can influence to respond to their interests that will be addressed in a given negotiation.

BATNAs are critical to negotiation because one cannot make a wise decision about whether to accept a negotiated agreement unless one knows what the alternatives are.

The better you understand your BATNA and the BATNA of other parties, the better you are able to judge whether to continue the negotiation or to walk away before an unappealing agreement is reached. Assessment of the other parties’ BATNAs helps to influence them and make them change it.

Choice of style—win-win or win-lose

There are two fundamental choices—a cooperative style (A win-win style ensures that both parties gain some benefit) and a competitive style (It is designed to maximize only one side’s advantage at a specific cost to the other.

This is an aggressive stance and, therefore, a win-lose approach to negotiation). It is important to decide whether it is more appropriate to aim for a win-lose competitive outcome or a cooperative win-win approach. It is decided depending on the nature of the conflict.

Team selection

Qui devez-vous inclure dans votre équipe et quels seront leurs rôles respectifs ?

Team selection should be based on certain criteria like;

  • personal qualities; functional skills that are required (for example, product or services),
  • specialist areas (like technical issues such as performance, quality assurance, warranties maintenance, commercial issues like price, delivery payment terms, legal issues, etc.);
  • Team playing skills (like compatibility with team members, balance of functional and personal skills—need to be complementary across the team, credibility, personal regard by the other sides);
  • Rôles de négociation (comme diriger, prendre des notes, écouter, réviser, surveiller).

Developing an interesting map

The best way is to test your assumptions about the stakeholders’ interests. Then, connect the interests of one stakeholder with the other.

A part of the job of developing an interest map is to figure out how the interests of each stakeholder relate to one another.

An interest map offers you a mechanism for determining what information you need, what questions to ask, what assumptions to question, and what elements will be most helpful to you and other parties in reaching mutually satisfactory results through a good negotiation process.

By underscoring your focus on interests, your interest map will help you avoid getting stuck on emotional hot buttons or cultural obstacles to developing a workable negotiation process and an agreement that works for the parties.

Les négociateurs qualifiés utilisent souvent un formulaire de planification pour faciliter la planification des négociations. Ce processus de planification offre certains avantages significatifs présentés ci-dessous :

  1. Putting down your thoughts on paper helps to sort them out and avoid contradictions.
  2. During team negotiations, it is useful to have a document for all members to contribute, criticize, etc. This helps prevent members from going off-track during the negotiation.
  3. In the post-negotiation review and in between negotiations, it is helpful to review the tasks already done and those that are yet to be done.

Élaborer et choisir une stratégie [Définition des règles de base]

Once the planning and strategy are developed, one has to begin defining the ground rules and procedures with the other party over the negotiation itself that will do the negotiation.

  • Where will it take place?
  • What time constraints, if any, will apply?
  • To what issues will negotiations be limited?
  • Y aura-t-il une procédure spécifique à suivre en cas d’impasse ?

During this phase, the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands.

Sound planning and careful preparation of ground rules are vital for a successful negotiation. We need to ask certain questions to set ground rules. Such questions should include the following aspects.

Why, Who, What, When, and How of Negotiation

  • Who will we be negotiating with?
  • What are our objectives?
  • Why are we interested in negotiations?
  • How are they to be valued, and in what order of importance are they to be ranked?
  • What time constraints, if any, will apply?
  • To what issues will negotiation be limited?
  • Y aura-t-il une procédure spécifique à suivre en cas d’impasse ?
  • When will it suit us best to hold the negotiations?
  • And when would it not?
  • How should we pitch our initial demands?
  • To what degree should we be prepared to modify these demands each time we are faced with counter-offers?
  • How should we negotiate?
  • How much time will we need to reserve?
  • What assumptions should we make in our planning?
  • How can we check their validity?
  • Where do we want to meet—on our ground, on theirs, or on neutral territory?
  • Where do we want the negotiations to take place?

Concessions

You have to decide what variables in your position you are prepared to exchange in return for any counter-offers.

What order should you set for offering your concessions, and what else might you be prepared to include?

Concessions are important because they;

  1. enable the parties to move towards the area of potential agreement,
  2. symboliser la motivation de chaque partie à négocier de bonne foi, et
  3. tell the other party the relative importance of the negotiating issues.

Midpoint

It is the difference between two parties’ bids and usually indicates where the settlement will finish. The higher one pitches one’s first bid, the more favorably positioned the midpoint will be for his side. The positioning of each subsequent bid can move the midpoint.

Each time it is your turn to bid, it will be you who will determine the new midpoint. One can move the midpoint in one’s favor by moving in smaller steps than the other side or even by not moving at all.

Technique of how to open the negotiation should also be planned. It requires a rehearsal of what you are going to say in your opening statements and how you are going to say it, as well as the analysis of the probable and possible opening comments that might be expected from the other side.

Another useful area that needs to be thought about is the seating arrangement.

Seating people full square opposite each other is generally considered to enhance the risk of confrontation. In one-to-one negotiations, it is better to opt for a cooperative arrangement, that is, to sit side by side.

The most flexible seating plan is to sit around the corner’ from the other party. This is friendly, relaxed, and non-invasive. It is, therefore, good for encouraging a cooperative atmosphere. If the climate turns aggressive, you can distance yourself without prejudicing your position.

Establishing the Issues and Constructing the Agenda

It gives a good idea of substantive elements a negotiation should cover to respond to our interests and what you assume to be the interests of other negotiating parties and outside stakeholders. Before a negotiation begins, all the aspects need to be answered.

During this phase, the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands.

Clarification and Justification

Une fois les positions initiales échangées, les deux parties expliqueront, amplifieront, clarifieront, renforceront et justifieront leurs revendications initiales. Il n’est pas nécessaire que cela soit conflictuel.

Il s'agit plutôt d'une occasion de s'éduquer et de s'informer mutuellement sur les questions, pourquoi elles sont importantes et comment chacun est parvenu à ses revendications initiales.

C’est à ce moment-là qu’une partie peut souhaiter fournir à l’autre partie tout document permettant d’étayer sa position.

It is the time of advancing demands and uncovering interests. After establishing the agenda, the opening moves in negotiation usually consist of each side putting forth its positions and demands. They need to explain, amplify, clarify, bolster, and justify their own original demands.

Building Confidence

Among negotiating parties, this is often an important first step or a series of steps that need to be undertaken. Confidence-building measures can be more elaborate.

When negotiating parties do not know each other well or if they have an unfriendly history, they can use a variety of tools to increase their comfort level with one another. Asking good questions and listening carefully are confidence-building elements in any negotiation.

Few other strategies can be used to negotiate in phases (trading agreements and performance on a piece-by-piece basis). Each small agreement that is made by both parties needs to be fulfilled.

In that case, the parties can work on larger, more complex, or more divisive issues. Early demonstrations that parties made, when become fulfilled, can increase all parties’ confidence that the overall process will be worthwhile. In each step, one should check one’s own BATNA.

Exploring

The more you can explore the other side’s position, the stronger you will be. What do you need to explore? It is the who, what, and why of negotiation, their BATNA, style, goal, etc.

The use of one’s interest map can give an outline of questions rather than the skeleton of the perfect solution. The more information you get from them, the more accurate the assessment of how your BATNA is affected will be. It helps in responding to the problem creatively and effectively.

The important categories and sub-categories of oral behavior include seeking as well as giving information.

In seeking information, the behavior usually takes the interrogative form and asks questions such as “What is your annual production and sales of watches?”

Giving information takes two forms. In the external form, the negotiator gives the information as a matter of fact as in “Last quarter, we produced 4 million watch pieces.” The internal form involves opinions or qualifications of presented facts.

It also includes the expression of feelings such as “Your insistence on a just-in-time delivery system makes us feel comfortable.”

Extensive exchange of data may reduce chances of making mistakes. An open behavior acknowledges such a mistake and corrects it, “I’m sorry. The 10 million units I’d mentioned were the figure two years ago.”

Bargaining and Problem Solving

The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement, a proper bargain. It is here where concessions will undoubtedly need to be made by both parties.

This is the phase of bargaining and discovering new options. This is where lateral thinking skills are invaluable in finding concessions that the other side will consider worthwhile but will cost you little.

This is known as searching for variables and is vital not only in offering concessions but also in evaluating those you receive.

Some of the other behaviors that are observed are agreeing (some proposals of the other party can be readily acceptable while the rest cannot) and disagreeing. In contrast, blocking involves disagreeing without assigning any reason.

An example may be, “Absolutely, under no circumstances will we consider that action.” Disagreeing sometimes escalates from disagreement with the content of a proposal to direct disagreement with the personal tactics or motives of the other party.

An example of such disagreement is a statement like, “You are deliberately trying to mislead us.”

Negotiators refer to this kind of behavior as attacking. Attacking usually brings out defending behavior from the other party

“We are not trying to mislead you, but you are not being clear in what you want.” Thus, defending behavior often turns the attack around.

At this stage, promises, threats, bluffing, and personal attacks are likely to emerge. Effort must be made not to personalize at this stage; participants must be objective and should focus on facts and not on assumptions.

The actual give-and-take process takes place during this stage. Parties reach a settlement and try to improve the outcome.

During the bargaining, the first bid should be as high as possible but still realistic.

There is always a possibility that in negotiation, the price or the demand will always be reduced. If the initial bid is not pitched high, then it will be more difficult to bring it up at a later stage. Low expectations generally produce low results.

Le processus réel de négociation est le processus de concessions mutuelles.

Il faut donc faire des concessions. Les concessions initiales que vous faites doivent être petites et provisoires. Si votre offre initiale est trop importante, des problèmes surgiront. En cas d’impasse, certaines tactiques doivent être utilisées pour les surmonter.

Les petites concessions doivent être liées à une condition qui vous donnera quelque chose en échange. Essayez toujours d’associer la concession que vous proposez à une autre concession de même ampleur en retour afin que votre cause ne soit pas affaiblie.

Tout en recevant et en donnant des concessions, il ne faut pas seulement les donner à contrecœur, mais aussi les recevoir à contrecœur. Acceptez les concessions lentement avec une douleur apparente.

Alternativement, vous pouvez choisir de ne donner aucune réaction à une offre. Il s’agit ensuite de relier tous les problèmes en un seul package. Une perte nette sur le commerce de concession concernant un article peut alors être compensée par un avantage ailleurs. Si un forfait vous est proposé, divisez-le.

Si une gamme d’articles vous est proposée, recherchez un package global. Résumez régulièrement et n'hésitez pas à suggérer une pause lorsque vous avez besoin de temps pour approfondir votre parcours.

Au cours des négociations, particulièrement lorsqu’elles sont longues, il est facile de perdre le focus de la négociation. Un résumé bref et concis de ce qui a été discuté jusqu'à présent au cours de la négociation et de ce sur quoi l'autre partie a accepté en tout ou en partie doit être documenté.

Closure and Implementation

La dernière étape du processus de négociation est une formalisation de l'accord qui a été élaboré et élaboré ainsi que des procédures nécessaires à la mise en œuvre et au suivi.

For major negotiations – this will require hammering out the specifics in a formal contract.

Le processus de négociation comporte cinq étapes. À toutes les étapes d'un processus de négociation, les parties impliquées négocient de manière systématique pour décider comment allouer des ressources rares et préserver les intérêts de chacun.

Cette étape se concentre sur l’élaboration d’un accord et l’élaboration d’une procédure pour sa mise en œuvre et son suivi.

Régler l'affaire

Lorsqu’un accord a été conclu après une négociation complexe, il est essentiel de confirmer que les deux parties ont effectivement accepté le même accord. Des malentendus peuvent surgir à ce stade. Il a besoin de l’aide d’un avocat pour clarifier vos doutes, le cas échéant.

Pour qu’un contrat soit signé, toutes les considérations contractuelles doivent être prises en compte. Ensuite, les termes et conditions standard doivent être rédigés clairement.

Des dispositions doivent être prises pour déterminer où les dommages et intérêts doivent être appliqués. Si vous le souhaitez, une disposition de « garantie » doit être établie et non une garantie. Veuillez noter qu'une « garantie » n'est pas légalement une condition d'un contrat.

Améliorer le résultat

Le meilleur résultat vient dans une négociation où il y a une combinaison de trois attributs importants : la compétence, l’aspiration et le pouvoir. Le pouvoir influence l’autre partie. On peut aussi en abuser. Mais cela ne doit pas être utilisé pour menacer la partie la plus faible.

Les aspirations élevées obtiennent des récompenses plus élevées en exigeant des exigences initiales élevées. La position optimale, pour négocier le meilleur accord, est d’avoir des niveaux élevés de pouvoir, d’aspiration et de compétence.

En cas de résistance à la finalisation d’un accord en raison d’une incertitude quant à son déroulement dans la pratique, appliquez la disposition de réouverture.

Cette disposition est un accord stipulant qu'après un délai donné, la décision prise par les parties sera sujette à un réexamen et à une éventuelle modification. La clôture du processus de négociation n’est rien de plus formel qu’une poignée de main.