Environnement commercial : caractéristiques, importance

Environnement commercial : caractéristiques, importance

L'environnement commercial fait référence à un ensemble de forces et de conditions à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur des frontières de l'organisation qui sont susceptibles d'affecter le fonctionnement de l'organisation.

If we analyze the definition, we find that perception is a three-step process. Though individuals receive numerous information at once, only a few of them reach an awareness.

Parce que les facteurs environnementaux influencent presque tous les aspects de l’entreprise, qu’il s’agisse de sa nature, de sa localisation, des prix des produits, du système de distribution ou des politiques du personnel.

For example, if you are concentrating reading something in the newspaper, you probably are not aware that somebody is making noise around you, that the fan is on, or touching the newspaper. Though you are receiving the above inputs, you ignore them until they are mentioned. Several reasons may be associated with this. First, a particular input is more likely to reach awareness if it relates to an anticipated event.Second, an individual is likely to allow input to reach consciousness if the information satisfies an existing need.

You are likely to notice an advertisement for a refrigerator if you do not have one and plan to buy a refrigerator. Another reason is that if the intensity of input changes noticeably, it is more likely to reach an awareness.

When a particular product’s price is reduced slightly, you may not notice it because the price reduction is not significant. But, if the price is reduced significantly, you are more likely to notice it.

This selectivity of the perceptual process leads to selective distortion as well as selective retention. It is the changing or twisting of currently received information to make it more consistent with the internal beliefs of the individual.

It usually occurs when the information that one receives is not in conformity with either his feelings or beliefs. It lessens, to a great extent, the effect of the stimulus on the individual.

  • On the other hand, selective retention is the phenomenon in which an individual remembers information inputs that bolster or support his feelings and beliefs and forget inputs that do not. After viewing a television advertisement for a product, an individual may forget many points if they are inconsistent with his earlier beliefs.
  • The second step of the perceptual process is the organization of stimuli noticed by the individual. Information that reaches the awareness of a person is not received in an organized form.
  • He must organize them to get meaning out of them. This organization is done quickly to obtain meaning and how an individual organizes information influences the meaning of information.
  • The third step of the perceptual process is the interpretation of stimuli received and organized by the individual. Interpretation of stimuli or information is required to reduce the ambiguity of the individual. Using his mental make-up or cognitive structure, an individual interprets information. A person usually bases interpretation on what is similar.
  • What individuals see or hear is not pure. It is rather influenced and filtered by the intensity and frequency of the stimuli, the other competing stimuli in the environment, and the needs, inner feelings, and experiences.

An advertisement of a pain reliever, for example, may or may not be perceived by an individual watching television depending on how long it was on the air; how many other ads were on and the physical attributes of those ads; and whether or not the individual had pain at the time of transmission of the ad.

Comme indiqué précédemment, le succès de toute entreprise dépend de son adaptation à l’environnement dans lequel elle évolue.

Par exemple, Gestalt theory focuses on how people organize or combine stimuli around them into a meaningful whole. Gestalt is a German term that means a pattern or configuration. According to the Gestalt theorists, we interpret stimuli in holistic terms..

It means that stimuli are evaluated in the context of a total situation rather than isolation. Gestalists believe that, while developing an object or stimulus’s perception, an individual does not perceive it part by part. Rather he views it as a whole.

Là encore, un changement dans la mode ou dans les goûts des clients peut modifier la demande sur le marché pour un produit particulier. Par exemple, la demande de jeans a réduit la vente d'autres vêtements traditionnels.

To the Gestalists, an individual perceives the form of an object above everything else. As a result, if a certain part or part of his perception is even lost, his overall perception remains the same. This is because of the holistic or totalistic perception of the object.

Gestalt theorists also contend that an object is interpreted in the context of its situation, but all aspects of the object itself also influence our interpretation. It can include our reaction to the overall aspects and background of the situation and the explicit content and even lack of content in the said object or stimulus.

Pour être plus précis, une bonne compréhension de l'environnement social, politique, juridique et économique aide l'entreprise des manières suivantes :

  • They argue that, human behavior must be viewed as individually patterned totalities. Behavior should be explained in terms of all the factors that are operating when an event happens. Thus buying is not motivated by a single element, but is the some total of many elements.

Field theory is a useful refinement of Gestalt psychology, formulated by Kurt Lewin. The essence of this theory is that, buyer behavior is the result of one’s psychological field existing at the time of taking buying decisions.

  • Thus, according to this theory, a person makes the decision to buy, taking into consideration product, quality, price, advertising, retailers, etc., all combined into a particular pattern, consistent with buyer’s expectations.

Gestalt psychologists have identified few principles of organization of perceptual stimuli. They are considered below:

  • Apprentissage continu

It is found from Gestalt experiments that we organize our perceptions into simple patterns. Even if a particular stimulus is complex, an individual is likely to perceive it simply.

  • Figure and Ground

Individuals tend to organize their perceptions into two major patterns – figure, and ground. Figure represents those elements within a perceptual field that are attended mostly by the individual. Ground , on the other hand, represents less meaningful elements that constitute the background. The figure is usually perceived clearly because, in contrast to its ground, it appears to be well defined, solid, and in the forefront.

The ground, however, is usually perceived as indefinite, hazy, and continuous. The common line that separates the figure and the ground is perceived as belonging to the figure, rather than to the ground, which helps give the figure greater definition. Consider the stimulus of music.

  • Concours de réunion

Il aide les entreprises à analyser les stratégies des concurrents et à formuler leurs stratégies en conséquence.

  • Identifier les forces et les faiblesses de l'entreprise

Closure